Superfast “fifth generation 5G” mobile internet could be launched as early as next year in some countries, promising download speeds 10 to 20 times faster than we have now.
But what difference will it really make to our lives? Will we need new phones? And will it solve the “notspot” issue for people in remote areas?
In the first of a five-part series examining the impact 5G could have around the world, Technology of Business tackles the basic questions.
What is 5G exactly?
It’s the next – fifth-generation of mobile INTERNET connectivity promising much faster data download and upload speeds, wider coverage and more stable connections.
It’s all about making better use of the radio spectrum and enabling far more devices to access the mobile INTERNET at the same time.
What will it enable us to do?
“Whatever we do now with our smartphones we’ll be able to do faster and better,” says Ian Fogg from Open Signal, a mobile data analytics company.
“Think of smart glasses featuring augmented reality, mobile virtual reality, much higher quality video, the internet of things making cities smarter.
“But what’s really exciting is all the new services that will be built that we can’t foresee.”
Imagine swarms of drones co-operating to carry out search and rescue missions, fire assessments and traffic monitoring, all communicating wirelessly with each other and ground base stations over 5G networks.
Similarly, many think 5G will be crucial for autonomous vehicles to communicate with each other and read live map and traffic data.
More prosaically, mobile gamers should notice less delay – or latency – when pressing a button on a controller and seeing the effect on screen. Mobile videos should be near instantaneous and glitch-free. Video calls should become clearer and less jerky. Wearable fitness devices could monitor your health in real time, alerting doctors as soon as any emergency arises.
How does it work?
There are a number of new technologies likely to be applied – but standards haven’t been hammered out yet for all 5G protocols. Higher-frequency bands – 3.5GHz (gigahertz) to 26GHz and beyond – have a lot of capacity but their shorter wavelengths mean their range is lower – they’re more easily blocked by physical objects.
So we may see clusters of smaller phone masts closer to the ground transmitting so-called “millimetre waves” between much higher numbers of transmitters and receivers. This will enable higher density of usage. But it’s expensive and telecoms companies are not wholly committed yet.
Is it very different to 4G?
Yes, it’s a brand new radio technology, but you might not notice vastly higher speeds at first because 5G is likely to be used by network operators initially as a way to boost capacity on existing 4G (LTE – Long-Term Evolution) networks, to ensure a more consistent service for customers. The speed you get will depend on which spectrum band the operator runs the 5G technology on and how much your carrier has invested in new masts and transmitters.
So how fast could it be?
The fastest current 4G mobile networks offer about 45Mbps (megabits per second) on average, although the industry is still hopeful of achieving 1Gbps (gigabit per second = 1,000Mbps). Chipmaker Qualcomm reckons 5G could achieve browsing and download speeds about 10 to 20 times faster in real-world (as opposed to laboratory) conditions.
Why do we need it?
The world is going mobile and we’re consuming more data every year, particularly as the popularity of video and music streaming increases. Existing spectrum bands are becoming congested, leading to breakdowns in service, particularly when lots of people in the same area are trying to access online mobile services at the same time. 5G is much better at handling thousands of devices simultaneously, from mobiles to equipment sensors, video cameras to smart street lights.
When is it coming?
BBC said, most countries are unlikely to launch 5G services before 2020, but Qatar’s Ooredoo says it has already launch a commercial service, while South Korea is aiming to launch next year, with its three largest network operators agreeing to kick off at the same time. China is also racing to launch services in 2019.
Will it mean the end of fixed line services?
In a word, no. Telecoms companies have invested too much in fibre optic and copper wire fixed line broadband to give those up in a hurry. Domestic and office broadband services will be primarily fixed line for many years to come, although so-called fixed wireless access will be made available in tandem.
However good wireless connectivity becomes, many prefer the stability and certainty of physical wires.
Think of 5G mobile as a complementary service for when we’re out and about, interacting with the world around us. It will also facilitate the much-heralded “internet of things”.
Will it work in rural areas?
Lack of signal and low data speeds in rural areas is a common complaint in the Bangladesh and many other countries. But 5G won’t necessarily address this issue as it will operate on high-frequency bands – to start with at least – that have a lot of capacity but cover shorter distances. 5G will primarily be an urban service for densely populated areas.